Leading is much more complex then it might seem at first glance. It involves a lot of small lessons that help to lay a good foundation. The concept of space is one, the ability to focus is another and then there is impulse control, these are huge and carry over to many other areas of our relationship. I prefer to do leading at liberty to start. It really makes it clear that they mentally understand these concepts. The choices they make when they are working at liberty gives us an enormous amount of information. Using equipment to facilitate leading can actually inhibit their understanding of space since we often rely on the equipment instead of teaching them to use their minds to truly think through the process. When they have it solid at liberty, then they will be really solid when we do use the halter and lead or if something goes awry.
In the video answer I talk about using the target. However, sometimes I forget that not everyone is familiar with the target or how to use it…that is what happens after 30 years of target training! I have had tremendous success using the target to teach them to maintain a comfortable distance when walking together. If you aren’t familiar with the target or bridge conditioning (clicker) you can learn more by going to my blog post entitled “Getting your horse off to the right start for clicker training” Here is a link: http://shawnakarrasch.com/blog/2013/01/22/get-your-horse-off-to-the-right-start-for-clicker-training/
Since they learn to follow the target I hold it out to the side to create the distance I want. I reinforce them when they are maintaining that space, at first for short distances and then I like to build duration. I am trying to develop a strong reinforcement history with the correct behavior. I also want to draw attention, via positive reinforcement (reward) to the transitions while leading at liberty. When they get the idea to stop with you, walk slow, speed up, and eventually trot with you then I begin to fade the target. As the target gets faded they begin to focus more on what you are doing since this is now the cue for what to do. This is the beginning of a very good habit…watching you for information.
As they are learning this new skill they may not have a clear understanding of what is expected, even though they seem to be good on the halter and lead. They may want to turn to face you when you stop or cut you off as you walk with them. If they try to cut me off I tend to just keep on my track and may walk into them. I think it is important to mention that I don’t do it in a confrontational or brusk way, I am soft and a bit slow but keep going. If they don’t respond by correcting their position with this then they probably need more time with the target. So take a step back and go a bit slower. Remember, one of my mottos is: “Slow down, you’ll go faster”. Also, they probably need to be stronger with the skill of keeping their head to themselves when just standing next to you (bridge conditioning 101). When they are well versed in the art of standing politely next to you, they will assume that position when you stop. Then they start to create this situation in the leading exercise as well. It becomes a concept that they understand. So if you walk toward them, they will want to maintain this space so they begin to yield, not to the pressure but because they are choosing to get lined up in the correct position. That choice is the best part of liberty work, they can stay or walk away.
The target can help to make the lesson clear for them as we begin to shift from the standing to the moving. This shift in context ups the ante, since they may have to relearn the criteria in the new situation. The target will help set them up for success so that we have something worth rewarding. It is up to us to be sure that our horses understand what we are asking of them. The target can also help to direct them as we teach them to stop next to us, nice and square but not on top of us. By holding it out to the side we can help to direct where their heads and shoulders go. Okay, I think that covers the things that I forgot to mention in the video. By the way…I apologize for the poor lighting in the video but it gets a little better than it looks from the screenshot. It is hard to monitor that when you are the director as well as the subject!
This question was sent in by Alicia. Her horse Sox has some separation issues. They are really coming to light when she is out on the trail. While the situation seems more evident on the trail, I suspect that this a problem that Sox has in other situations as well but her reaction is much more subtle. The unknowns that she encounters on the trail probably ramp her insecurities up to a level that bring out the more dramatic reactions like bucking, bolting and rearing. So I suggest we start with smaller exercises around the barn before moving back to the trail.
This subject brings up what I consider to be a VERY important concept and I talk about quite often. It is the idea of determining thresholds. This has a lot to do with timing and observation, which is key to any good training program. This topic could use it’s own blog post. However, I want to cover it here too since it is such an important concept to embrace and it is a big part of sorting out the issue of separation anxiety.
When we bring our horse to a new situation or stimuli that might worry him, we want to start with him in his comfort zone. I consider his comfort zone to be when he doesn’t change or tense up one little bit in the presence of a new object or situation. Essentially, he shows no reaction what-so-ever. By incrementally taking very small steps closer to the situation that causes worry we will be able to determine at what point (threshold) his anxiety changes. By this I mean the SLIGHTEST raising of his head or change in alertness toward the object/situation. The place where his comfort level begins to change is his threshold.
For many people this slight change isn’t even considered a reaction or perhaps it is just overlooked. To me, I see this as communication, loud and clear . He has just told me he is beginning to enter potentially worrisome territory. My job is to listen and meet him at that place. I want to build up his confidence at this point, however we will move at his pace…not mine. By starting at his comfort zone I can get him to try a little bit more and say “yes” throughout the process.
I try not to get “greedy trainer syndrome” by asking for too much. It is far better to take very small steps and spread it out over a few days or sessions. Us humans tend to hurry, set our own agendas and push it too far. This will often backfire on us by compromising their confidence. If we can go in small steps, quitting on a good note, followed by a magnitude (jackpot) reinforcement, we will make a much bigger impact. We should also allow them time to process this new information before the next session. The more they rehearse ANY behavior the stronger it develops as part of their repertoire. So our goal is to get correct responses repeated without pushing them to rehearse incorrect responses. We don’t want them getting into the habit of performing the wrong behavior. That is why it is so important to work sub-threshold, using successive approximations to slowly stretch their comfort level and helping them to make the right choices. As they learn to face their fears, in their own time, their confidence level will increase exponentially. Okay, enough about that for now.
In the video answer I give an outline of some steps to take and exercises that will help to bolster Sox’s independence.
Another thing I repeat often throughout my teaching, is that we want to do all we can to help set our horses up for success. By starting around the barn and in the areas that may feel safer for Sox, we can start below threshold. This will set her up for success and give us a chance to build a good foundation and history with doing the correct thing. As our horses get better we will slowly, over time, move to the more challenging areas (like the trail) and be able to fade some of the tools we used to help set them up for success. Once on the trail, I encourage starting with the smallest space between the horses. If you go too far too soon you probably go over threshold and cause undue stress and even anxiety. You will have better success if you keep the steps on the conservative side.
It is also important to be aware that putting the horses back together can be a huge reinforcement for the horse with separation anxiety issues, especially in the beginning when he hasn’t developed a good reinforcement history with being apart from the others. So when Sox gets to be right next to the other horses on the trail, we are reinforcing her behavior, whatever that might be. Ideally it will happen when she is nice and calm. When you are ready to do a training session on the trail with another person, it is very important to have good communication with the other rider. It would be best to discuss your plans ahead of time. I also recommend that the goal for the first few sessions on the trail, is not about going on a long trail ride, but as an opportunity to teach your horse.
Okay, well that went a little longer than I thought it would!! I hope it helps to give you some fresh ideas. If you have any questions or comments…well, you know what to do!
This Question comes from Odile (pronounced Oh Dill…thank you Odile for clearing that up for me!) She wants to know how to teach her pony, Diego, to stand still when she approaches his side or walks around him. This will also be helpful for mounting issues and for teaching a “stay”.
At this point Diego finds it more reinforcing to turn and face Odile. With positive reinforcement we can turn this around. By the end of the exercise he will find it more reinforcing to stand quietly. Our job is to make the lesson clear, easy to follow and to help him make the correct choices along the way.
First, as I mention in the video, it isn’t uncommon for the horses to want to stay with you when they get started with this training. They want to keep you at their head. Also a lot of the natural horsemanship/round pen work teaches the horse to turn and face you. So this lesson may seem a bit confusing for your horse in the beginning.
I have found that often times a flat hand on their shoulder seems to help them to settle a bit. So this is the first thing I try. I try to calmly put a steady, but soft hand on their shoulder. I don’t want it to be confused with pressure that they may interpret as a signal to move away. If they start to get too active I don’t recommend that you persist. If this isn’t helping them to settle, than “chasing” them around, trying to touch their shoulder can make them feel nervous or confused. Remember relaxation is an important component in all of the training and this is no exception. Brining about the quiet relaxed mind will help you to have more success with teaching this behavior.
Think of what you can do to set them up to succeed. For example, is there an area of the barn where he is more relaxed? Maybe a certain time of day? Perhaps he is more relaxed after he has had exercise or after he has eaten. These are things that you will need to figure out about your horse in order to help him be relaxed and more apt to stand quietly.
In the beginning you want to bridge(click) and reinforce(feed) the smallest approximations toward your end goal. By drawing attention to the little steps along the way you will help to make the lesson more clear, as well as to help minimize frustration.
If you have a horse who is more of a busy body and likes to move, then asking him to stand still for a long time may be more challenging for him than for a horse with a more docile personality, especially in the beginning. Breaking it up with a little bit of activity may help him to be able to settle more easily. It may also serve as a form of reinforcement for him, if it is something he finds enjoyable. Slowly we can build up the amount of time that he stands quietly and fade out the need for the activity breaks.
The end behavior should be that your horse stands still while you walk all the way around him, being able to touch anywhere on his body. It is a skill that every horse should master. Standing quiet and relaxed is invaluable.
I hope this helps you out. As always…if you have any questions or comments, I would love to hear from you.
In this video clip I give Melissa some suggestions to help her hose-phobic horse get past his anxiety. I have found positive reinforcement to be the very best way to overcome spookiness issues in horses, it really helps them to choose to face their fears….and fear of hoses are no exception. To watch them make a decision to relax and let go of their worry is hugely reinforcing for me. Also, a huge benefit of the training is the level of the confidence that your horse will gain through the process. Offering something that your horse finds valuable will really grab his attention and help him to enjoy the learning process.
Before you begin working directly with the hose desensitization, I suggest you be sure he is solid with the bridge signal (clicker) as well as with the target training. Sometimes I just make an assumption that people know this part, so I forget to mention it! By getting a good start, and NOT cutting corners, you will make quicker progress. I am often heard saying “slow down, you’ll go faster” but it is true!! If you need more info on this process you may go to my blog post “Get your horse off to the right start for clicker training”. For an even better explanation of the science behind the training you may want to get my DVD and/or book “You Can train Your Horse to Do Anything”. I also forget that not everyone knows that I have a book or DVDs, so I thought I should mention it here just in case.
Whenever we are dealing with fear in our horses it is very important to keep the training within their comfort range, giving them time to slowly acclimate as we go. As I mention in the video clip, we need to look for signs of worry as well as relaxation. If a horse is standing looking soft and neutral, then he lifts his head as if something got his attention…that, to me, is the threshold that I want to recognize. This small action is communication pure and simple. It tells me that he may have become slightly concerned. I will not move forward with the next step in training until he looks totally relaxed again. Progressing nice and slowly will allow him time to acclimate. If we move too fast we will likely lose ground, as well as trust.
Some of the signs of relaxation might be…exhaling, relaxed head position or casual stance, soft focus, soft eyes, ears, jowls, lips and muscles, etc. These are not the only indicators, however they are some of the more common signs. Seeing some tension in any of these areas doesn’t necessarily mean that their mind is worried. My horse, Bugs has busy lips, they rarely look soft but it doesn’t mean he is uptight…it is just part of his personality. The same goes for the signs of relaxation. For example, a head down doesn’t necessarily mean a horse is relaxed. Horses are individuals so you need to know your horse and what his body language is saying. If this is a new concept for you, than I suggest you get an experienced horse person to help you recognize your particular horse’s body language. Also, watching him when he is turned out or interacting with his environment will also tell you a lot about your horse and how he deals with new situations.
I recommend you build relaxation into the criteria of every behavior you teach. Your horse may not be perfectly calm at first but you can look for little improvements. Bridging (clicking) and reinforcing for the smallest approximations toward your goal. After a while, being attentive and settled will just be a habit for him. However, it is important to only work on one criteria at a time. I recommend you start by working on one a particular element of the target behavior. Relaxation will be an ongoing criteria. So I wouldn’t necessarily suggest you focus on it completely, but keep a vigilant eye out for the times when it is offered. When you get a good approximation that is also calm I would draw a lot of attention to it by rewarding handsomely.
As with every new behavior, we really want to consider what we can do to set them up for success. Is there a place where your horse is more composed? Maybe the wash stall already has an unpleasant association, so starting somewhere else may help to put him more at ease. Hopefully you will get better responses and more opportunities to reinforce. Maybe he will be better after some exercise to take the edge off. Using a little common sense always helps!!
If you follow your horses lead by not going over threshold, while also using a high rate of reinforcement and keeping the sessions brief, you should be able to move forward without a hitch. If you go too fast and lose some ground, don’t sweat (we all do it sometimes), just take a step back and work a little slower, allowing your horse time to process the lessons. The next thing you know your horse will see a hose and think “hose=reinforcement”…you will be dragging him away from the hose! The video will give you a lot more info. Just holler if you have questions or comments!
In this video, I answer Karen’s question about upward transitions. This seems to be a recurring theme that is difficult for us humans to grasp…as far as positive reinforcement goes. Historically, we have used pressure/release to teach horses to do just about everything. I want you to consider something in regard to traditional training and “going forward”. What is in it for your horse? Why should he want to put in the extra effort to go forward? What does he get out of it? There isn’t much incentive for the horse outside of us using our aids to create pressure. Then we leave them alone when they respond correctly. On the other side of the coin, with positive reinforcement we can bring something that our horse values and this dramatically changes the horse’s enthusiasm. Because there is something in it for them, they become invested in the training program and enjoy the learning process. They are as interested in the outcome as we are….how’s that for a partnership? It sure does make for a happier horse and it makes our job a heck of a lot easier too.
Once we get started with the positive reinforcement training basics (bridge conditioning and target training) we are ready to advance in our training. While we can move right into under saddle work following that initial phase, I recommend that you train a behavior on the ground first. Let me explain….the better their experience with the learning, the stronger their effort will be when things begin to get a little more difficult. So I like them to get hooked, to really enjoy the training. The best way to do this is to be certain that they experience a lot of success and very little frustration. By teaching them one simple behavior, and getting it solid, we have helped them to get all they way on board with the training. Something simple, like going to a stationary target or picking up their feet on their own. Additionally, teach the behavior of leading at liberty incorporating upward and downward transitions. Since we are discussing upward transitions, I recommend most reinforcements come for upward transitions….just something to keep in mind.
Usually, under saddle work has a long history with traditional training. If our horse doesn’t fully comprehend how good the new training can be, then he won’t know that good things lie ahead for him. He may check out before we have a chance to get his attention. In this post we are addressing a bit of an issue with upward transitions…that means we have probably gone through the pressure release route without much success. This let’s us know that we are dealing with a particular mind set and he has probably developed a habit of resistance to going forward. It doesn’t mean that he is trying to be bad, it just means he doesn’t find it reinforcing enough to do what we are asking. It is more reinforcing to plod along or ignore our aids. In any case the reluctance usually has a pretty well developed history. We need to get him out of his old mindset and ready to play the new “game”, that he finds so reinforcing, under saddle. I suggest you keep your first under saddle sessions particularly short and sweet…. this means maintaining a high rate of reinforcement! This will help to grab your horses attention. Getting him engaged and keeping his focus is the first goal. To ensure that he is putting two and two together, I encourage you to only work on one behavior under saddle at first. You want to see him making the connection and having success with this behavior. Pretty soon you will feel him offering the new behavior just like when we were teaching the behaviors on the ground.
Somethings to keep in mind… We are exercising their minds, not their bodies. For a lazy, balky horse, we can offer a huge reinforcement by just getting off and calling it a day when they give us a good effort. For this first stage of training, if they still need additional exercise I will turn out, lunge, etc, AFTER we do our under saddle training session.
This brings me to the next point. We ALWAYS want to set them up for success. What can you do to create more energy, a better response or a better attitude? Often it is better to ride them before they have had too much exercise so we utilize their extra energy and enthusiasm. Of course you have to evaluate your particular horse to determine what will work best for the two of you.
Be sure you don’t skimp on the time you put into the bridge conditioning (clicker) and target training. This is often something that gets overlooked. It may seem a little repetitive, but it is supposed to be! For one thing, we are conditioning the clicker, thereby giving it value. This is classic conditioning and it takes repetition. The clicker needs to have a very strong association before we move on to more difficult behaviors, like your under saddle work. We want to be sure that they recognize the clicker as the reinforcer. That is why the stopping to reinforce doesn’t matter…. they are working for the sound of the clicker. The stopping is an incidental that we initiated by our clicking. When properly conditioned, they will remember what earned them the click. It is called abridge signal because it bridges the gap between the moment of behavior (that earned the bridge signal) and the time when we can deliver the reinforcement. It bookmarks that moment in time.
This bridge conditioning process helps to get them really solid on relaxing and also respecting our space. We want this to become their default behavior…down the road you will be glad you did. When I see a horse who has resorted back to being pushy it is often a result of too little time with the basic manners or not maintaining this behavior.
The target work allows them to become more engaged in the training. It helps them develop better problem solving skills. It also continues to improve our relationship and trust.
And one last thought for you before you watch the video…Doing upward transitions from the ground while liberty leading can be very helpful under saddle as well. The goal is for them to mimic my movements. The signal is my speed and movement, so when I trot they trot, when I walk they walk, when I turn right, they turn right, when I stop they stop, etc. I also start pairing a verbal signal in here as well. This way we can utilize the signal from the saddle as well. In this situation I bridge (click) upward transitions. So as soon as the spring into the next gait or even increase within their gait. What is happening in this process is that we are building a good reinforcement history with upward transitions. Even though it is seems out of context, they often times will generalize. What has happened when we work on it from the ground, they begin to realize that when I am asked to go forward, I may get a reinforcement. They recognize the cue as an opportunity for reinforcement…after some repetition it actually becomes a conditioned reinforcer (that classic conditioning is always at work!)
One final reminder…they remember what earns them the click…don’t worry about the stopping!! The duration is easy once they understand the concept and are offering the behavior. If you can find it, there is an old, and helpful article that was featured in Practical Horseman in June of 1999, It chronicles one of my students progress with teaching her horse to move forward. Pretty soon she called to tell me she had to slow him down!!
Barbara asks some questions that are hot buttons for a lot of people coming from the school of “clicker training”. She is inquiring about the use of the bridge signal(clicker) and not following every single bridge with food. In the marine mammal industry we don’t call it clicker training…in fact most people don’t use clickers. The term was derived and introduced into the dog world some years ago. With it came a set of rules that aren’t used in the marine mammal training industry. That has lead to some confusion as to what is “allowed” when using positive reinforcement. At Sea World we studied and utilized behavioral principles and applied learning theory. The marine mammal industry is on the cutting edge of positive reinforcement training. I know from a previous conversation that some of the rules of clicker training, as it applies to dogs, were created for the neophyte dog owner/trainer. I understand why they were implemented but I also realize that we have come a long way since then. People are now much further along in their education and understanding so they can easily handle some of the more “advanced” concepts of training. I address the questions and give more info in this video clip, but I wanted to touch on some of the points here in the post as well.
One is the concept of not feeding every bridge signal (clicker). The bridge signal/clicker is a conditioned reinforcer also known as a secondary reinforcer. This means we have given the clicker value through classic conditioning (think Pavlov’s dogs). Once that happens it then serves as a reinforcer, all by itself. Occasionally reinforcing with a scratch, game, toy, turn out, activity, another signal or any other conditioned/secondary reinforcer does not diminish the value of the clicker or any other bridge signal. If the ratio became out of balance then that would be a different story, but as long as the ratio is skewed toward most of the bridges being followed by food we keep the value quite high. There are plenty of benefits to using secondary reinforcers and it definitely enhances your relationship.
Next Barbara brings up cues. There is a “rule” that you can’t add a cue until the behavior is almost completely trained. That is not necessarily true. In fact in most cases we are instituting some sort of cue (discriminative stimulus) as we start to train a new behavior…otherwise how would they have a clue what to do? So you have a cue from the get go. Often times I will slightly modify the original cue or simply make it more and more subtle. I give the example of my spin cue in the video. At first it was a point to the target, pretty quickly I started adding two fingers pointing to the target. I kept the same signal that I used from day one but it got smaller and smaller so that it is subtle, this helps to keep them more watchful. If I need to take a step back to remind them, I am still using the same working signal that was a part of the initial lessons. It is easy to slowly get bigger to remind them. If I want a different signal altogether, I will start to pair it with the working cue as soon as they start getting successful approximations. With a target to guide them through it starts pretty darn quick. Free shaping and capturing will be a different process. Since there will likely be more guesswork on the horse’s part, I will add the cue later in these cases.
The third thing that Barbara asks about is the use of a magnitude reinforcement…AKA jackpot feed. She wanted to know if I use a jackpot on Mint’s back up (video: “Now that’s a backup!!” on my YouTube Channel) I definitely use jackpots during the training process, especially for the smallest improvements when working on a new behavior. This seems to keep them highly motivated to work through the rough spots. I actually use the magnitude feed quite a bit. I like to make a big impact and allow latent learning to take effect. I believe quite strongly in having short and sweet sessions and I end every session with a magnitude reinforcement. Well, let me clarify, I end every successful session with a magnitude reinforcement.
Okay, that may about cover it, the rest is in the video…If you have any questions or comments please let me know!
Sabrina has a horse and and pony that she is getting started with positive reinforcement training. The first portion of this training is the trickiest for a lot of horses…or ponies. Her horse responded quite nicely and sorted it out quickly. However, her persistent pony is a different story. She is being kind of tenacious, instead of patient. A pony tenacious…now there’s a surprise! This first portion takes some good timing and looking for the smallest approximations toward turning their head away. This is the most important lesson they need to learn since it sets the tone for future interactions. The good news is that it doesn’t take long for them to get this skill worked out. Take a look at my last blog post to see a horse learning this task for the first time.
Often times people choose to ignore this unwanted behavior and not bring food around their horses at all, except for at feeding time. That is one way to deal with it but certainly teaching them how to behave correctly makes for a more well rounded horse, whether you plan to use positive reinforcement or not. When I watch a horse who is pushy when food is around, I will usually observe this same demeanor at feeding time. This attitude gets reinforced everyday when they get fed, so they have a strong reinforcement history with this unpleasant behavior. These horses are slower to give up on what has worked so well, for so long. So remember, every time you feed your horse you are reinforcing them for SOMETHING! If they are standing quietly, then you will see more of this behavior, if they are pawing or diving at the food then you will see more of this behavior. By simply being aware of what is happening you will be able to change their habits. I can go on and on about manners at feeding time but for this post I want to focus on Sabrina and her pushy pony learning to be polite in the presence of food.
I gave Sabrina a number of suggestions for how to handle this situation. One is to feed her pony before her session. Ponies are often on restricted diets and this can make the value of food skyrocket. By feeding her before the session, this is one ways we can set her up for success. I failed to mention another way that we might be able to set her up for success, would be by doing a session after she has had some exercise. This can take the edge off of their energy level and minimize the frantic seeking of food. Anyway that is something you may try and see if it helps her focus. As she gets the lesson worked out and knows what is expected of her we can fade out these tools that we used in the beginning to help make the learning less frustrating.
Watch the video for more suggestions. Anyone who is new to this training may go to my last blog post for more info for getting your horse off to a good start. Sabrina, please keep me posted and let me know how things are going.
Let’s face it…hand feeding is one of the biggest concerns people have about using a positive reinforcement training program. In reality, it isn’t very difficult at all to teach your horse excellent manners when they are in the presence of food. It just takes some awareness of what behaviors are happening when you are offering food. Each time you give your horse a treat, you are actually telling him that the behavior he is performing at that moment is something that you want to see repeated. If you watch the average person feeding a horse a carrot, the horse usually has their head and neck stretched out toward the person. The horse has learned to pursue the food by reaching toward the person. By simply being aware of what is happening and feeding when a different response is occurring, we can teach a completely different behavior.
In my eyes, this is one of the most important lessons. It establishes good ground manners, patience, and if done correctly, relaxation. Too many people, as they get started with using positive reinforcement, don’t spend enough time here (making this lesson a strong one and teaching the horse to make a conscious choice to keep his head and mouth to himself)
I made this video as part of a short series about de-spooking your horse. This was to serve as a brief introduction to help show people how to get started. Since that time I have had LOTS of requests for this video clip. As I look back, I see things that aren’t explained as well as I do in my DVD You Can Train Your Horse to Do Anything. I also see so much that I was processing in my head and some are judgement calls based on my decades of experience. Being that this was to be a short piece, I didn’t really have the time to share my thoughts about these decisions. Being my own best critic, this kind of makes me cringe. Yet I also want everyone to get off to a good start. I often see people who don’t understand how to approach the first and most crucial lesson. So I figure, while it is important for everyone to have a more thorough understanding, at least this little bit of knowledge will help give them a good “jump start”.
Lucky Jack is the horse in the clip and he starts off feeling more mouthy than most horses. He wasn’t as aggressive as some but I felt he needed more direction than some so I “shushed” him away. This is not a normal tactic I use, but in some cases it seems to help distract them slightly, thereby setting them up for success. I also pause longer between some of the clicks…again this was a call I made. I felt it would be best for him because I was able to recognize a familiar and probable behavior pattern. So, I am recommending that you don’t let too much time go between clicks in the beginning. As you are both new to the process, this will help to make it a little bit more black and white for the both of you.
In this video clip you see me walking with LJ as he moves around the stall. I will only do this if the horse is calm and confident. If the horse seems even the slightest bit nervous I tend to stay more still, since excessive moving may cause some horse’s nerves to escalate. I tried to move slowly and calmly with him so he didn’t perceive me as tense. They are very responsive to our moods. If we get more anxiety, they usually respond in kind. However, if we remain calm they tend to feed off of that as well. So being quieter and allowing them to sort it out on their own, combined with a high rate of reinforcement for even the slightest effort, is a good rule of thumb to follow.
When feeding our horses try to remember to feed them out in front where you would like their head to be. Step up to feed them where they are as much as you can. This will help to reinforce the position even more and it will help to prevent drawing more undue attention to the food source. So reach out, under, forward…whatever the situation requires to feed him.
One of the fundamental things to look for during this process is relaxation. I can not emphasize this one enough. Looking for relaxation in all that you do will help to keep them even, calm, deliberate and polite. A calm mind is much more lucid so it helps our horse to make better decisions….and it is all about teaching, and allowing them the chance to make decisions. At first they may be a little more excited but if we focus on the slightest improvement, and draw attention to calm, we will see more and more calm… It will just become part of the criteria. At this point you may have no idea, how important this will be down the road. But remember it is all about the smallest steps. These are called “successive approximations”.
On to the target…This is a little more straight forward. I try different positions to see how I can help him to make the best choices.
I must reiterate, that LJ does not have the bridge signal (clicker) part down yet so I normally would not have moved on to the target so quickly. Please do yourself and your horse a huge favor and complete 8 or 9 short sessions (5 minutes) of just the bridge conditioning and manners before moving on to the target. I see people who have troubles with their horse’s manners and it is usually because they have moved on too quickly without getting this foundation solid. When you have done those sessions, it is then time for the target. I recommend the same amount of time and repetitions.
Finally, If you feel uncomfortable with your horse’s assertiveness when starting him with the manners/bridge signal portion, you may work from the other side of a stall door or fence. This protected contact will keep you out of his reach while still being able to work his manners. Be certain that he’s good and solid on the outside of his enclosure before you work into closer contact. Once you can be right next to him and he is being calm, I recommend you start the same number of repetitions as above. Though it will be a little longer process, we should never be in a hurry or take short cuts. They set the pace of the training.
As I mentioned, this is part of a 3 part series in a brief de-spooking your horse exercise, using milk jugs. We will be working through some ground work with a spooky horse named William in part 2 and then in part 3 we move to the milk jugs under saddle. For more info about getting started and the behavior principles please check out my website or look for my DVD and book entitled You Can Train Your Horse to Do Anything. For more info about de-spooking your horse there is a 6 DVD set full of exercises to help your horse become more brave and trustworthy. The set is called DeSpooking Your Horse: Building Boldness & Confidence. I think of them as team building exercises since they help to build the trust on both sides of the partnership.
Okey dokey…If you have questions or comments please don’t hesitate to ask. Enjoy!!
Not all biting is about food. There are many possible reasons why a horse may bite…there is always a reason. Though we may not know what the cause might be, we can change this behavior.
When starting a horse with positive reinforcement there is an easy way to create great manners and a relaxed demeanor when food is around. Clearly this is important since food is often present. The method used for creating good manners can also be implemented to address problematic biting. In fact, I have helped horses who are very mouthy and even aggressive, using food based training. Because most horses put a very high value on food, it is important to have some awareness of how to use it in a constructive way before getting started with a positive reinforcement training program.
Rachel’s horse, Trigger, seems to be making a habit of biting, though food doesn’t seem to be what is motivating his mouthiness. In the video answer I offer a possible cause and solution.
This is not a problem that we often encounter. I mean, how many horses have a trauma related to saddling? But the solution is applicable to all types of situations. Anything that has your horse reacting with fear and avoidance can be addressed using this basic de-sensitzation exercise. Not to get you too caught up in technical terms, but what we are doing is actually called counter conditioning. We are taking something that has an unpleasant association and turning it around by pairing it with positive reinforcement, thus creating a pleasant association.
Of course, and this is a standing order with me, always be certain that there aren’t any physical issues causing the strong reaction. But let’s say their behavior did have a physical origin, often times once the problem is remedied, they still retain the painful memory. We will need to build a new, better reinforcement history with the object or action that caused the worry.
It is very important that we start this process within their comfort zone, progressing only as they show complete comfort with the previous step. It is important to do this in very small increments (successive approximations).
Their fear is a very clear form of communication. Respecting their concerns and exercising patience as we help them to overcome these fears, does amazing things for their degree of trust. If you follow these steps, reinforcing relaxation and paying close attention to your horse’s comfort level you will help to build their boldness and confidence. Okay enough of Psychology 101, let’s watch the video…
Wow, this is a big broad topic! I address some of Holly’s specific issues that have caused her concern in the past. These issues have led to a lack of confidence when she is handling horses. Safety is always first and foremost but I want to help her have some tools that will help her stay safe while building a more trusting relationship with her new horse. Remember, the help of the professional is also another option as you learn how to get a feel for a new horse, or any time you feel unsure.
“Girthiness” is a fairly common issue, especially with mares. However, this behavior is often overlooked instead of being addressed. Their responses may vary; it may be anything from biting, kicking, fussiness or pinned ears. But in any case we can change our horses attitude about the girth or surcingle. And the good news is that it isn’t difficult to do! In this case, Willow’s horse is just learning about this new sensation so it is going to be a quicker fix than a horse who has been habitually grumpy when the girth is tightened. However, it will still be a similar process. One thing to remember, that isn’t addressed in the video answer, tightening the girth in small increments is going to be one of the ways that you can set your horse up for success, so remember to go slow. Also, as a standing rule…before getting started with training, always rule out any physical cause when your horse shows any change in behavior or has a cranky reaction.
This is for my South African friends…We are working on organizing a clinic (or two) in South Africa this March!! I have heard from several people in the past who have been interested in attending or hosting a clinic. I will be down that way so now is a great time to get something organized. I am very excited to have the opportunity to work with some of you…and your horses. If you would like more information please get ahold of Krizelda. Here is her FB page if you would like to send her a message. https://www.facebook.com/krizelda.carelse
In this video answer I address Debby’s question about her new horse. Debby’s horse doesn’t understand the usual leg cue for moving forward. She would like to use positive reinforcement to teach her horse to move forward rather than using pressure/release. For those of you who are familiar with positive reinforcement/clicker training, you already know what a difference it makes in the horses attitude when they are given a choice. You will see a marked improvement in attitude, performance, enthusiasm, retention and focus. By using positive reinforcement you are putting something in the training equation that your horse finds valuable. They become invested in the training process…and it’s outcome! It is amazing how willing, soft and responsive the horses become. This is why more and more professionals are incorporating positive reinforcement into their training protocols. With Debby’s horse we are starting with some basics. This takes a little thinking outside of the box. If you have any questions or want to learn more about the training please don’t hesitate to ask. “>
Years ago my friend Jane Savoie got a new horse from another successful, international Dressage rider. To say the horse wasn’t so good at clipping would be a understatement. She was told that she would never be able to clip the horse without first medicating her (the horse, not Jane!)Jane was familiar with what I was doing and began to put the training techniques into action with clipping her new horse.
In 3 days she was clipping the horse without medication or restraint. She went from being panicky when being clipped to being calm and trustful. Her horse was actually choosing to stand quietly, relaxed and willing. She wasn’t opting for the less worrisome of two different forms of pressure….the lesser of two “evils”, so to speak. There was no coercion or pressure involved.
Of course, all horses are different and their training paths will differ depending on their experiences but with positive
reinforcement training you can really change the way your horse looks at clipping.
Are you ready to have a horse who is calm and confident about clipping?
BTW…Yesterday as I was sending out an announcement of my new clipping DVD offer, I accidentally sent a email that said “This is a test” That is all the email said. This went out to thousands of people! I felt really bad, I couldn’t imagine
what was going through peoples heads as they read that cryptic email.But since these(you) people know me and my sense of humor, I received a lot of emails from people who got a kick out of it, they thought it was some sort of weird Shawna joke. That sure did cheer me up. So if you are one of those people, Thank you!!
Want to go on a vacation somewhere warm? What about one with horses? Well, me too. These Southern California winters are brutal. Okay, maybe that is a bit of an overstatement, but it is all relative. Us Southern Californians get tired of our colder weather too. Maybe it is all those years I spent in the cold water and a wetsuit or maybe I am just a wimp…but I can’t wait for the warmer weather. This year I am going to do something about it….I am going to go to Central America!
That’s right. I am really excited to let you know that we just finalized the dates for my clinic in Costa Rica. Well, actually it is more than a clinic…I will be there all week. From May 1st – 7th. It will be so much fun!! Discovery Horseback Tours, run by Andrea and Chris Wady, is a top notch operation. There are some great reviews from people who have had the time of their life. If you want to learn more here is a link to their website. Wait till you read about all of the things you can do. I hope you will join me, Andrea and Chris in Costa Rica! http://www.horseridecostarica.com/vacationpkgs.php
Jen asks a question about creating a bond with her off track Thoroughbred. She is just getting to know her new horse and wants to get started using positive reinforcement training. Using the click/reward techniques will help to build trust incredibly fast. The trust and respect will grow stronger each and every day.
In addition to what I said in the video, I always recommend reinforcing for relaxation. Building it into your criteria from the start will be a big help. Typically, a horse right off the track has a tendency toward being full of energy and not very quick to settle. So as you start the basics (bridge, and target training) watch his eyes, ears, mouth, jaw, head position and body for signs of softness. At first he may not be very relaxed but look for small improvements…tiny little approximation toward settling. By clicking and reinforcing for these increments you will see him becoming more and more relaxed. With relaxation comes focus, manners, sensibility, and a good attitude.
I am really excited for the two of you because I know the amazing journey that lies ahead. Jenn, please keep me posted of your progress and congratulations on your new horse!
Stephanie asks a question about stiffness in her horse’s neck. As always you want to rule out any physical causes by having your vet give your horse a good once over. Also, it is prudent to re-check the fit of your saddle. Okay once we have that sorted out it is time to see what we can do to encourage our horses to bend. Relaxation is the key. From what I hear, Stephanie’s horse seems to be beyond the usual rigidness. In any case I share my initial thoughts on the video. Remember to never use force or coercion to create softness. Using positive reinforcement we can teach our horse to bring it from the inside out. Stephanie, please keep me posted. Let me know how these suggestions work out. If you have questions or want to try something different I have more ideas up my sleeve.
Do you have any material on horses that are aggressive? Bite and or kick when asked to do something as simple as move over. We have a rescue exhibiting this. Haltering also an issue…
Response from Shawna:
I haven’t made a DVD on this topic yet. This behavior is challenging because the aggressive ones are all over the map…both mentally as well as physically! However, I have dealt with this sort of thing occasionally and have found the best success with starting as if the horse were green and didn’t know anything. In a way they are indeed green, because they haven’t learned how to have healthy, balanced interactions with people. Though we can address each issue individually, when everything seems to be an issue, it seems like it is all a symptom of a bigger, underlying problem. That fundamental problem being the horse’s perception of people. I like to start from the basics using only positive reinforcement. This way we are able to build a new, better reinforcement history with everything. Once the new history is established the horse will approach training with a new and improved, more cooperative attitude.
When horses have this aggressive attitude toward training (or doing anything that humans ask of them!), it is usually rooted in fear. At some point they were left with no other option, other then to protect themselves. Once they learn how well being aggressive works for them, the behavior tends to escalate. Once the’ve reached this point they offer resistance without even thinking. As far as they are concerned there is nothing in it for them except the possibility of fear and worry. By putting something in it that he values, he will become invested in the training equation and will even look forward to his time with people. I highly recommend dropping all of the old stuff and start over again, this time with pressure not being part of the equation. I think this is important since it sounds like even minor pressure triggers his aggressive attitude. I suggest using only positive reinforcement training. Also, teaching him to be very strong with his targeting skills will be a huge benefit. The target can serve as the new halter and lead rope, allowing you to get him to move and adjust without the need to use pressure. I know it sounds like a lot of work, however you will find that some parts will go quite quickly and some will jut take a little longer. The places where it tends to takes longer is because these places have more baggage attached. By allowing him to make choices (and not coercing him to do things) he will gain a whole slew of trust, minimizing his need to resort to aggressive behavior. Please keep me posted. I would love to see you help him get past this destructive habit. It will help him to be happier and more well adjusted with all parts of his life. The training also has a lot of unanticipated benefits, you will see parts of his personality blossom as the trust builds.
Thank you so much. I am a believer in positive reinforcement big time and have worked with a lot of abused horses but this guy is the most aggressive with small things. I wondered about fear being the root do will pursue based on that. I’m still waiting for my order to arrive.. I have the basic info and clicker but not the target.
Would associating food with the clicker make him worse? If he gets a treat now for just standing politely it seems to trigger pinning and teeth to get another treat which he does not get. I am expecting very little right now… Just to walk without nipping. Standing head forward and waiting to the count of 5 then getting petted. If his head is turned at all toward you while leading he takes opportunity to nip. I just move his head over with the back of my hand and continue.
You are SO right about being all over the map!!!!! Describing tiny behavior exhibited is difficult but I am very in tune with that. This one is very challenging for me and he does scare me which is NOT helping!!!! This is the first horse in my life that actually made full contact and bit me on the leg!
Any ideas are greatly appreciated … This horse was taken back to the rescue place 5 times in 2 1/2 months likely from his behavior… So I bet he was hit a lot…
I’ll continue to work on the trust which I know is THE most important issue with horses.
First of all, I LOVE your dedication to helping this horse. Too many horses get discarded for “bad” behavior and the sad fact is that nearly all of the problems were unintentionally taught by humans in the first place. Kudos to you and thank you for being there for him…even if he doesn’t appreciate it yet!
Okay, the first thing to do will be to establish a proper attitude about food and feeding. Often times this sour attitude is also displayed at feeding time. I recommend that you keep an eye on that behavior as well. If he is surly, just wait him out (while outside his stall or paddock). As soon as he softens his demeanor, deliver the food promptly.
Relaxation is the key, it will help him to settle. We need to teach him that relaxation is part of the equation with food. He values food, but we need to establish appropriate behavior around food. You can do this from outside of his stall or paddock. Simply stand nearby, at first he may be a little worked up, since he knows you have food. Look for turning his head away and/or softening. We will want to shape this toward more relaxation but at first we need to communicate to keep your head away from the food source. In the case I suggest doing this outside of his enclosure so that you can let him process all of his bullish behavior while still being in a safe place.
The initial goal is for him to stop focusing on getting the food, when he softens, relaxes, or gives up and becomes less interested, even just a little, that is when you should click and feed. Remember it is an approximation toward our goal. As soon as you click, feed promptly and feed a big handful. Meager amounts often times seem to exacerbate tension and the feeling of wanting more. We want him to get a good dose of reinforcement at the moment he softens. Also, I have found that while they are still chewing that huge handful of feed, they are content (relaxed) because they are not actively seeking more food yet. Even though they are still chewing, this is a great opportunity to click and feed again, as long as they are offering the soft demeanor. After 3 or 4 good handfuls for exhibiting softness, give him a moment to process again. He may stay a little relaxed for a short time, so if this is the case, even for even a moment, click and reinforce again promptly.
What we are looking for is the smallest increments of improvement. We are shaping the new, correct behavior so we shouldn’t be too strict with our criteria at first. If he gets wound up pretty quickly, just step back out of his reach and repeat the process and wait for the softer, more relaxed attitude. Eventually, we will fade away from this incessant feeding but for now we need to help build a solid reinforcement history with the correct behavior. Right now he has a strong relationship with being pushy and aggressive to get what he wants. We are looking to rebalance the scales. It will take some repetition at first. I would suggest continuing with this exercise. Start with very short and highly reinforcing sessions. End the session with a jackpot or magnitude feed. Often I will pour the rest of the food from the bucket into his feeder or on the ground. He wants the food, we just need to help him learn what will work…and that the old stuff won’t work. Because his old habits have worked for so long, he will resort to them rather quickly for a while until he figures out that it works no longer. The more repetitions we can do to reinforce the attitude we are looking for the quicker we can get him turned around. I have found it is better to do short sessions more often, rather than doing longer sessions.
Another good thing to keep in mind…if any behavior increases(or maintains) in frequency, then something in the environment is reinforcing that behavior. That is the bottom line. It is up to us to figure out how to change things around. It may be a bit different for every horse but there is a way to come to a better place. One caveat: safety is first, always!! So do what you can to keep you and others safe. If you need to employ further professional help, please don’t hesitate. When we can get him taking food nicely I suggest we move onto target training, but for now you have your work cut out for you. Again, we will want to associate targeting with relaxation. You will find that relaxation will be an ongoing theme! In my opinion, relaxation is paramount in all that we do with our horses, even for the biggest, boldest, most energetic behaviors. Well, all right then, that is all for now.
Oh thanks again! You hit the nail on the head! He is food aggressive and I tried the wait but did not give a big treat and yes, you are right about that making him worse. Fortunately I stopped immediately when I realized it didn’t work so that only happened once.
I will try this new technique with larger amounts for sure. I know there is a good horse in there somewhere… I haven’t to date given up on a horse but do need help as each one of us has a little different skill set!
I live to learn and am open to trying as it seems the more I learn the more there is to learn!!
You have a great attitude. I too, never want to stop learning! :)
I have gotten rid of mouthiness, biting and aggression using positive reinforcement/hand feeding. As you know, it is not the food that is the problem, it is the people who have unintentionally reinforced the wrong attitude. The good news is we have sorted it out, rebuilding trust and manners using positive reinforcement/clicker training. Hang in there…and keep me posted on your progress!
People just don’t seem to talk about that awkward subject of sheath cleaning! I have learned that most people don’t know how to do this or how often it should be done. Well, I think that should change so I have made a DVD on the subject. It is like sheath cleaning 101.
You will learn not only the anatomical side of sheath cleaning but the behavioral side as well. I have found that most people haven’t learned how to do this basic husbandry task because they don’t know how to get their horse to stand quietly for the procedure. All of that is about to change.
Your horse will learn to stand quiet and relaxed while you get to the business of sheath cleaning. In the process you will develop a great rapport with your horse and you will find that the training principles will reach beyond just sheath cleaning.
I have had a great amount of interest in this DVD…matter of fact it kind of surpassed me. I am happy to finally have it available. If you would like to learn more visit the link below:
I just wanted to share this sequence of pictures. Too often there isn’t anyone taking pictures of the amazing things that happen with the positive reinforcement training. Bernard of Deamphoto.biz happened to be at this clinic/demo. He did a great job getting some fun pictures so I wanted to share them. He is a great photographer as well as a great guy! Also, he invented some clever things, like the salad spinner for one! I hope that you enjoy the pictures.
As many of you know jumping issues are one of my favorite things to address with horses. Given my history and where I got started with horses, that probably isn’t too surprising. As for Stormy…I start this process going from point A to point B (person to person), at liberty. As they get the A to Bs worked out from a good distance, I introduce jump standards with a pole on the ground. I begin to turn it into a jump. The criteria slowly increases. The positive reinforcement keeps them engaged and enjoying the process even though it becomes more difficult. They become invested in the training process so they will make choices to face their fears (for Stormy it was the liverpool). He had a free choice the entire time…no whips, chutes, body positioning, no coercing at all. This makes the behavior solid since it is truly a choice…not the lesser of two evils, so to speak. When they go through this process, the change in confidence is amazing and it carries over to more than the jumping issue. If you have any questions about the free jumping and overcoming any jumping issues please don’t hestitiate to ask or comment.
I think this is a great post from Confidence Blog by Effective Horsemanship (see link below). It is full of food for thought. My goal has always been to help people learn the principles of behavior so that they may continue on their own with confidence. At Sea World I felt like I had done my job when I could sit back and watch a sea lion that I trained, successfully do a show (over 100 trained behaviors) with another trainer. Then I knew I had succeeded. The goal is to fade myself out of the equation. The same is true for people. I feel like I have made good progress when people truly understand the principles and can think through them on their own. I want them to take the concepts and run with them. Applying positive reinforcement to the training equation takes a shift in thinking since it is very different then traditional horse protocols. So there is a learning curve. However, I didn’t create positive reinforcement training. It is based in solid science and research done over decades. I am just helping to facilitate the understanding of how our horses learn and how to apply it to everyday situations. I continue to learn with every horse and every person. Anyway, I wanted to share it with you. I would love to hear your thoughts. Enjoy…
I have given this a lot of thought and I have decided to list my clinic prices on my website. I know this is not the usual practice for clinicians but I have found that many people have been surprised that I don’t charge more for clinics. Some of these people almost didn’t even bother to call figuring it would be out of their price range, only to be surprised how reasonable the clinics are priced. While other clinicians often charge twice as much, I have tried to keep the cost as low as I can while still being able to ensure that I can reach as many people as possible (without going belly up!) My plan is to keep these prices through the next year.
Some of the horses I work with are in the six figure range (and above) and then some are horses who have been rescued. To me, they are all priceless, so I want to be sure that everyone has the opportunity to learn about the amazing benefits of positive reinforcement training. While awareness is growing, I feel that there are still too few good resources out there. My ultimate goal is to help broaden awareness of learning theory and how it applies to real horses in real life situations. I am happy to work with people to make this happen. For non-profits organizations and those that are scheduling more than one clinic we can work together to make it more affordable.I hope this helps to clarify things, so if you have any questions please don’t hesitate to get ahold of me. http://www.on-target-training.com/services.php
Here is another blog post that I think you would enjoy. This one is by Jenni Nellist and her blog is always a good read. Here is a link: horse behaviourist in Wales
Solving Horse Behavior Problems and Me
Being someone who helped others solve equine behavioural problems was an attractive career prospect for me. I already had an enduring fascination with the equine mind and the rise and rise of ‘natural horsemanship’. Reaching the equine mind was a dream that was becoming more and more of a reality for me. I discovered that this was a dream best realised through dedication to educating myself and translating that acquired knowledge to experience andvice versa. This process was my way of experiencing and understanding the whole purpose of ‘evidence based horsemanship’.
I very quickly found out that the role of equine behaviourist carried with it a great responsibility; to the animal in question and the people associated with it. The old saying, ‘a little knowledge is a dangerous thing’ particularly stuck out in my mind. I didn’t want to be the individual who had little knowledge and no realisation that this was the case! I became almost hyper aware of what I didn’t know just by questioning my own knowledge and practise. This didn’t put me off from trying, I just made sure that I plugged gaps in my knowledge and understanding with further learning whenever I found them. And I still do, the whole point of CPD!.
I found that a lot of knowledge derived from academia was essential, but absolutely useless when isolated from experience. I also found that while experience was also essential, it was also absolutely useless when isolated from knowledge and understanding gained from academic application. I discovered as much in the classroom as I did in the field… and still do! I’d now ask anyone who questions my ‘paper’ qualifications, “is it not best to be fully cognizant of what one is actually witnessing and practising, rather than to take a more blinkered approach and thinking one is fully knowledgeable of what one doing based on personal experience alone?”
I would like to think that an accomplished horse behaviour consultant is not only an experienced and effective horseperson, but is also knowledgeable of ethology, psychology, neuropsychology, physiology and animal welfare science. And is able to apply the fruits of scientific endeavour to the practise of resolving horse behaviour issues through effective, safe and humane teaching methods. And continue to question current practise so that knowledge and practise can be improved for the future of all horses and their people. What I did yesterday might not be the same as I do today since new findings may have come to my attention that can improve my application!
It was during my studies under Dr Anne McBride and her team at the University of Southampton that I learned that the art and science of resolving horse behaviour problems relied on the correct diagnosis of the causes of behavioural issues. And that appropriate tailoring of behaviour modification relied on that differential diagnosis. This skilled undertaking relies on knowledge and understanding of both horse and human behaviour. This almost harks back to Barbara Woodhouse claiming that there were no such thing as bad dogs, only bad owners. I wouldn’t go so far as to label the owners of ‘misbehaving’ horses as ‘bad’, horse behaviour can appear to ‘go wrong’ for many reasons, but one thing is certain: The horse’s behaviour is unlikely to change unless its human changes their behaviour first. The owner leads the way in behaviour modification since they are the one who calls me in to facilitate the process. If I fail to undertake full assessment before starting retraining, the less efficient, ‘therapeutic’ approach, ‘sucking it and see’, is the (usually) less satisfactory or humane result.
Another thing I learned pretty early on is that behaviour always happens for a reason, even if the humans around can’t identify one. Horses act to gain things they need or to avoid things they don’t. These reasons are purely equine and reside in the horse’s mind; my job is to translate ‘horse’ into ‘human’. Horses are only capable of equine behaviour, thoughts and emotions, and all too often humans give human reasons for horse behaviour. The concept of horses being ‘bad actors’ and performing bad behaviour on purpose just to get the better of people is probably as old as equine domestication itself. But I ask, “is that fair?” All horses want is to stay alive, eat and procreate. They don’t lose sleep over lost ribbons or the next show. Most problem behaviour comes from a conflict of interest between what horses were born to do, and human ambition. Compromises can be made, and there are good examples of them everywhere, its just that there are bad compromises too. Just as a plumber sees more faulty toilets than the average human population, so I see more horses where it’s all gone horribly wrong.
Good equine reasons for unwanted behaviour are fear of pain, loss of life and the unknown, frustration and confusion regarding trained behaviour, bad handling and social mismatching. Every behaviour has an emotional and cognitive reason behind it, I like to understand how the horse feels and thinks as well as what it does.
In my opinion good training is an art where the end goal is presented in successive, achievable chunks. Some horses require smaller chunks than others, especially where emotional problems such as intense fear or anxiety are a primary concern. I’ve learned that proper diagnosis enables finer tailoring of any training plan before it’s begun.
Any behavioural problem, be it excessive aggression towards other horses, refusing to load into the box, or napping on rides out, will have the following elements in its past and present. There will be an emotional reason for the behaviour – the psychological state that motivates its performance. I have found that I can ascertain such a reason from the triggers for the behaviour and from its consequences. There will be elements in the horse’s temperament, breeding and past experiences that predispose it to the particular behaviour. There will be a learning experience that started the problem in the first place. And there will be factors and circumstances in the horse’s day to day life causing the behavioural problem to continue.
When these things are known it is possible to do that fine tailoring, creating the individual rehabilitation programme. And this is where I’m able to use my creative streak alongside good instructional and coaching skills. In my experience rehabilitation usually requires husbandry and handling changes as well as specific retraining. I’m glad that these days I have a large tool box to facilitate this. I’ve found this toolbox necessary to maximise the potential for change without harm to the safety and welfare of both horses and people.
There has been much talk on the internet recently about the use of pressure in training and whether it is viewed by the horse as pleasant and helpful guidance or instead something that the animal is in fact working to avoid or get rid of – thereby an unpleasant aversive; its termination acting as a negative reinforcer.
It is well known that an important type of learning that ALL species experience is about concequences. Everything we do has concequences! And changing our behaviour changes those concequences!
Whether a behaviour has increased due to a positive reinforcer or a negative reinforcer can be difficult to determine in some situations – especially if a click (followed by food) has marked the response for the horse at the same time as pressure being released.
Is the horse offering the response because it finds the guidance reassuring, pleasant and helpful as well as seeking the click and the food (positive reinforcement)? Or is it instead responding to the pressure which it knows will go away when it offers the correct response (negative reinforcement); the click and treat being overpowered by the horse’s motivation to avoid the aversive?
Both of these concequences reinforce the behavioural response we are looking for meaning it will INCREASEand happen MOREfrequently. So some of you may be wondering what is the point in these online debates are anyway, since the outcome in both cases gets us what we want – an increase in the desired behavioural response! And after all, if we feel that the level of pressure we are using to achieve that isn’t aversive or unpleasant…then it must be ok – right?
Hmm – sadly not. I believe this is the crux of the matter actually. Humans tend to get very focussed on what WE want when training our horses, how WEfeel about the tools we are using such as body language pressure and physical pressure. If it feels like soft, light, guidance to us we assume that we can safely say the same for the horse.
Ironically, this is exactly my point. Training isn’t (or at least shouldn’t be) about how we feel about it.
Conversely, training is actually about the HORSElearning through changingITS behaviours as a result of ITSexperience.
“Learning is an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience.” – Carlson, Buskist and Martin (2004)
Almost more important is to realise that the experiences that drive changes in behaviour of the horse are defined according to how the HORSE feels about them, not US.
It isn’t about what WEbelieve, think or feel about what we are doing, using or even intending to use.
As humans we have a fabulous ability to justify our own behaviours in an anthropomorphistic manner; superimposing our own feelings and experiences onto our animals as a means of justifying our actions. In some cases, we even go as far as to reinscribe technology as a way of re-wording something to make us feel better about it as in this case – ‘pressure and release’, as Jenni Nellist so brilliantly explained in her recent blog post.
But how can we tell how the horse feels in order to work out whether pressure is viewed by them as a positive stimulus acting as a positive conditioned reinforcer or an unpleasant aversive acting as a negative conditioned reinforcer? Their subtle body language signals give us a window into their souls and can enlighten us pretty clearly when we know what to look for – low level anxiety body language signals stand out pretty radically when compared to horses happily responding to light pressure as a positive discriminative stimulus (cue).
It is indeed possible to train a horse to view extremely light pressure as pleasant stimulus that has positive associations attached.
The key is in understanding how the HORSE really feels about that pressure…and US leaving how we feel out of the equation!
I want to formally say a big thank to everyone for your support regarding our westward migration. It was touching to read all of the well wishing thoughts and comments.
I am happy to report that we have reached their home, here in the hills of Northern California. It was a special moment to see these brave travelers investigating their new digs. It is incredible to remember all that they have been through.
The past several years these rescues had settled into the comfort of their safe haven in Colorado. Change didn’t seem to be something they were embracing when the trailer training began.
However, all of the care and planning made the journey (and training) a positive experience. I can even say it was a whopping success. These horses actually seemed to find all of the stimulus intriguing instead of worrisome and it was obvious that they found the trailer to be a safe place.
It is amazing how positive reinforcement training can really change things for the horses. They have come so far, both physically and emotionally. Kudos to all involved in this monumental undertaking. Well done!!
Okay, next order of business, today is the LAST day the On Target Trailer Loading DVD will be available at this special price.
If you are interested in getting your horse to be a confident loader (who can ship half way across the country!), I suggest you take advantage of this opportunity to get the DVD set at this low price while you can. It will be good until tonight, midnight PST.
Also keep in mind, I am always available to offer support to help as you progress with your horse’s training. This is a commitment I make to you and your horse…to see you succeed.
The positive reinforcement training is so effective but too few people really understand it yet. My goal is for you to learn how to apply it in all sorts of situations, not just trailer loading.
Alrighty, that about wraps it up for now.
Warm wishes and enjoy getting your horse On Target!
Update on our migration: We headed out for the final stretch and then we got a flat tire (and one compromised tire) on one of the trailers. We found a spot along the road to wait for some new tires. It was several hours before they got there. The temperature was nice and cool as we waited. The horses were calm and restful.
Then here comes the tire guys! All of a sudden it was loud and hectic. They had hydraulic wrenches, air hoses, sledge hammers(to get the tires off of the rims), there are lights and trucks running and if that wasn’t enough a tanker truck pulled up along side the trailer with the young ones. Since they are in a slant load it ended up being right behind them. The truck blew it’s brakes. It seemed like real mayhem yet the horses were phenomenal!
Keep in mind that these horse couldn’t even be safely handled a couple years ago and here they are dealing with things that even a seasoned traveler would find difficult. The were calm and sensible!! If they did get startled they settled right back down on their own volition.
They have developed such trust and seem to realize that all is not as fearful as it once seemed to them. I was SOOO proud watching those 6 little horses keeping them selves so composed.
We ended up turning back to the layover barn since it was late at this point. We are giving them a well deserved day to rest and will finish the journey tomorrow. I will keep you posted. Thank you all for your good wishes and warm words. I will pass them on to their humans who have done most of the work! :0)
BTW the picture above is the 3 younger horses. They just loaded and are watching a horse playing in the turn out. We are heading out for their new home…or so we thought!
I think it is funny that I am releasing my trailer loading DVD while in the middle of a HUGE trip for 6 rescue horses…well, it is a big trip for their humans too!
So much planning and care has gone into preparing these horses for this expedition. 1200 miles from Colorado to California…we are almost there!!
Just in case some of you don’t know, these horses have had been through some tough times. Most of them have had some sort of abuse or neglect. There is one horse who is an experienced trailer gal. But the others, have had very little experience trailering and the small amount they did have was not good. So, for months now their loving humans have devoted their time to help these horses get acclimated to trailering and all that goes with it.
Given their past, the project was a big one for everyone. I have come in every now and then to help give guidance along the way but the credit goes to the humans that worked with them all. Well, that and the training!
Using positive reinforcement they were able to get the horses to open up, to trust people and to enjoy being in the trailer. However, 4 days on the road is another issue for any horse, let alone this posse of horses.
Well, today is the home stretch!! We broke the days down into small increments, averaging 300 miles a day. Did I mention one of these horses is 26 and another is 29!!! That meant we really wanted to give them short days with plenty of rest in between.
We weren’t sure how they would respond to all of the new sights and sounds or how they would do getting on and off at new places after their big ships. So much uncertainty! We did all we could to prepare them for these unforeseeable challenges.
I am so happy to report that they have been amazing!! I am so proud of all that are involved. These gals did a great job getting these horses with a great foundation. The horses have seen/heard, semi tractor trailers, air brakes, trains, freeways, tunnels, stop lights, traffic and skateboarders doing tricks right next to their trailer.
They are so solid and seem to be enjoying the whole process. I see this as such a big testament to the power of positive reinforcement training. As I always say, I didn’t create the training. It is applied learning theory, I just help to facilitate it, to put it to work in the real world with real horses in real situations.
Just a reminder, I am running a special on my new trailer loading DVD if you would like to learn more about the training. The special will be running through Wednesday and then it is going up in price. So, if are wanting to get your horse trailering like a pro, please visit the link below:
Will your horse load in the trailer anytime, anywhere?
I recognize that this is a problem for a lot of horse owners. Well, guess what? I decided to make a DVD that will show you how to teach your horse to become the best loader in town!
You will learn how to use the proven behavior principles behind positive reinforcement training. It is simple and easy with no resistance, no balking and no long drawn out sessions. The best part is your horse will enjoy the whole training process…he will love being the trailer!
Plus, when all is said and done, you will realize that the training is great for so much more than just trailer loading. You will find about a million situations with your horse where the principles will come in handy.
I am really excited to finally be releasing this new DVD set that I decided to celebrate by offering you an amazing deal. But only for the next week, then the price will go up, so don’t dawdle!! Get more info and checking out the link below.
Unfortunately, there are a lot of horses out there who are not as happy as they could be or who, even worse, resent the training process. We must always rule out physical causes but once we have done all we can physically we may find the problem is with their mental attitude. The great news is we can change this by adding something to the equation that the horses finds valuable. Something that he perceives as valuable, not something that we assign value to for them. By using positive reinforcement in their training program you can bring about big changes in your horse. You will get a relaxed but eager partner.
Here is a link for the early stages of getting started. Once you get the foundational work in place you will start to see a change in your horse’s attitude, even without taking it to under saddle work. But taking it to your riding you will be addressing his demeanor directly and you will start to feel and see a happier horse. http://on-target-training.com/freetraining/ If you have more questions or would like more information please don’t hesitate to comment or get ahold of me.
As a side note, I recommend Gerd Heuschmann’s work for some great insights into physical relaxation through bio mechanics. This also brings about mental relaxation which of course, is what we want.
The most impressive and elaborate behavior is worthless to me if it is done with a poor attitude. Unfortunately, we have a tendency to focus on the activity being performed rather than the demeanor they have while doing the behavior. We also tend to reinforce these behaviors at a higher ratio than we do for standing quietly. When I say quietly, I am referring to internal as well as an external calm and relaxation. One of the best ways to teach our horses patience and emotional/impulse control is to focus on this steady, even keeled attitude and reinforce it accordingly. It should be the foundation behind any behavior, even the most active. Doing a piaffe, sliding stop, jumping or any behavior that requires a high level of activity is still best done with relaxation. Therefore, I strongly recommend paying a tremendous amount of attention to shaping a calm and relaxed demeanor throughout your training. Yet, keep in mind we can also teach them to be flat, dull and barely trying if we reinforce behaviors that are done with this attitude. It is all about the balance.
Getting back to the original question…when they are calm and relaxed, they cannot be wound up and cranky. These two things are opposites and incompatible. Technically, we should use something called a DRI or Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior. We should reinforce the response we would like to see more often. They can’t do both of these behaviors at once so they will have to make a choice…do I scowl, act snarky and tense or do I choose to soften and relax? If we have done our jobs correctly they will choose settling since this is the behavior that has the better reinforcement history and association…pretty soon it is a habit. It becomes the attitude they associate with training.
Well, those are some of my thoughts about creating a horse with a happy attitude. The options are endless but if we pay attention to these things it will help us to recognize the subtle changes in our horses behavior. Only then can we create a happy balanced partner.
As I mentioned, in the very earliest sessions I find it is necessary to establish some healthy boundaries when it comes to food. It is up to us to help them learn the correct way to behave when food is in their presence. This can be a real trouble spot if not done correctly and thoroughly established. Fortunately it is simple but needs some repetition. While they are they learning to turn/ keep their head away during the first stages, I begin to work on the behavior I consider the holy grail of training…drum roll please…Standing calm, relaxed, yet attentive.
Standing quietly and relaxed is imperative for training a good attitude. So this is one of the first things I begin to shape while conditioning the clicker. If they learn to be relaxed with a calm focus, most everything will take care of itself. You are beginning to establish a good work ethic and it will carry over to most everything they do. Let us not forget that turning their head away or putting their head down or even standing quietly, does not necessarily equate to relaxed. They can do these behaviors with all sorts of tension and it can easily escalate to a cranky or even a dulled demeanor if it goes unchecked.
We are responsible for recognizing and encouraging a settled, attentive demeanor and emotional control with all that they do. Standing quietly can play a big part in training this healthy attitude. Something to keep in mind is that standing calmly may be very hard for some horses to do at first. Particularly young horses or those horses who are busy bodies and tend to constantly be in motion. It will work best to shape standing quietly and getting to a relaxed state of mind in small steps…just like with any behavior.
This brings me to another aspect that I touched on briefly, yet I also find very important for developing a great attitude, that being Setting them up for success. I strive to create as few errors as possible while learning. I know there is no way to minimize all of the errors and in fact the mistakes are part of the process. They allow the horse a chance to rule something out as an option. However, I try to make the approximations as clear as possible. The target is an invaluable tool for helping to make the steps clearly defined and simple to understand for the horses. As I have previously stated, I find liberty work to be the best way to go so, I think of the target as a replacement for the halter and lead rope. The target effectively eliminates the guess work for the horses while still allowing them to make their own decisions. It helps them have success while training and helps them to enjoy the learning process. To be continued….
Training has some inherent, built in stress. That is just the nature of learning. We are moving out of our comfort zone and into an unknown. It is not clear what is expected, what will work or how to do it. In addition, the first part of the clicker training starts out with free shaping which can be the most stressful type of positive reinforcement training. We are looking for them to turn their head away from us so they are not bowling us over for the food. This is a very important skill for them to learn right off the bat, yet there is not an easy way to help them understand what we are looking for. Well, there are some things we can do to help them out but by and large they are on their own. We are building a new form of communication(bridge signal)but those pieces aren’t in place yet so we have to be quick with our timing and taking advantage of the opportunity to draw attention to the new behavior. It would be much easier if they knew about the target and the clicker but of course that is not the case yet
By being consistent, setting them up for success, establishing a high rate of reinforcement, and more importantly…taking the smallest steps, these steps can all help to minimize the frustration associated with the early steps of training with the clicker. This time is critical as we are wanting to grab their attention but we still need to establish some healthy boundaries and proper manners. We need to do all we can to make this a pleasant and successful experience. This is what will help them build a good attitude toward learning…and a good work ethic…To be continued….
Part two: Combining traditional training with “clicker “ training…
I talked about the different ways that people apply clicker training with their horses. Ideally, I like to teach behaviors using positive reinforcement, yet most of the horses I encounter are cross-over horses. This means the horse has already been trained through pressure/release training and is now being introduced to the use of positive reinforcement in his training protocol. A large number of the people I meet are not interested in letting go of their pressure/release training. That is okay, so long as the horse isn’t showing any worry about the traditional training. As people have the chance to understand the training and see it put to use, they often start shifting to using more and more of the clicker training in their day to day work with their horses.
It is harder for some people to recognize when their horse is not content with certain aspects of his pressure/release training until the tell-tale signs are pointed out to them. People, often times, think their horse is doing well because he is quiet, however, sometimes their horse is actually shut down. It takes a bit of awareness to see that they have checked out. If that is the case I suggest going way back and essentially starting over. Using positive reinforcement and rebuilding a new, better reinforcement history with the behaviors they know, will help them to become more invested in the training process. They will be down right enthusiastic!
One the other hand, if things seem to be on a pretty good level with their horse and his training we can simply add clicker training to increase the horses motivation, performance, capacity for learning and especially their relationship with the owner. You can do this by adding positive reinforcement to what he already knows or by training new behaviors. All of this dramatically improves their attitude across the board. Often times when I am called in there is a problem with some facet of training and they seem to be stuck. The first thing I like to do is go to liberty work for their particular issue, if possible. If it is not an option, I will work the horse in a halter and lead rope, being careful to not apply any pressure via halter, lead rope or body position. This equipment is simply to keep them from wandering too far astray. They may wander to the end of the lead rope, yet I still won’t correct their actions by applying pressure or pulling. I prefer a long lead rope so they feel they have some liberty to move away. This freedom (preferably at total liberty)really gives the horse a chance to show us where they are comfortable and where they are having troubles. Often times to the owners surprise it is a much different picture than what they anticipate. Usually as the owner sees the dramatic improvement, they begin to use clicker training in other facets of their training program.
As we begin combining the two systems I usually don’t see any bad attitudes or grumpiness as a norm. However, some horses will start out a little possessive of food and this can cause some stress and uncertainty at first that can be carried over to the whole training process. Then there are also some horses who just seem to have a sour attitude toward training, being ridden and people in general. Even though they may be compliant, that attitude is a pretty big indicator that something is up that needs to be addressed. First, be sure that there is not a physical cause behind their disgruntled attitude or a sudden change in behavior. I always recommend having your vet, dentist, farrier check to be sure all is well with the horse physically. Let’s say there is a physical problem and you correct the situation, they may still keep the association with the pain and the undesirable attitude may continue.
With a little awareness and good timing it is not so hard to reshape these grumpy attitudes into a consistently soft, happy demeanor. Yet, if they are not addressed right away they can become a normal part of the training equation, even when we are using positive reinforcement. If we reinforce them with this attitude we may be unintentionally telling them that this is part of the criteria. By recognizing it and addressing it we can correct this behavior. To be continued….
Snapdragon is a happy 3 year old mustang who has learned to load in the trailer. She learned how to load nice and slow first and to keep impulse control. However, given her druthers, she would rather canter! Notice how she settles back down once she is in the trailer. She is a horse who has learned that training is fun and she looks forward to working with her humans.
Lately, I’ve had a number of questions related to the attitude of clicker trained horses. People were asking why do my horses look happy while theirs or others clicker trained horses seem cranky? I was gobsmacked!(I learned that term when I was in the UK with Helen) I didn’t know how to answer this question. I have spent some time processing this idea and trying to figure out the things that I may do differently than some of the other people who are training with a clicker. I might add that I have seen lots of happy clicker horses. However, I have also seen (or been contacted about) some disgruntled horses. Enough so that I realize there is something amiss out there for some folks and I want to help turn this around if I can. I have tried to identify some factor that may make a difference. I don’t have a definitive answer for this so here are some of my thoughts:
Part one: Let’s look at the method…
As a trainer who uses a clicker(as Dr. Helen Spence so aptly puts it), I have to admit there are some good “clicker” trainers out there and some not so good. There are also different approaches to using the clicker during training. There are some who drop every ounce of pressure/release training and will go to great lengths to use their creativity to remain as clean as possible. To train solely through positive reinforcement, we need to remove all of the tools that are associated with pressure/release and work at liberty. This means halters, as well as other equipment, and even displacement (through body language) are not used during the training phase. Liberty work has a number of advantages. First, it removes all of the need for volatile behavior in horses. Whether feral, aggressive or scared, they tend to feel safer since they can flee a worrisome situation. They will choose to walk, instead of run if they feel the need to get away. It builds trust much faster than when using pressure/release tactics. And secondly it allows them the freedom to come and go as they like which tells us a lot about their comfort level.
There are also some who choose to train and teach using more traditional training tools like halters, ropes, reins or physical displacement as part of the clicker training equation. These people will cause the action to happen through pressure of these aids and then click/release/feed once they have elicited the correct response. It is still the pressure that created the behavior so it is traditional (negative reinforcement) followed by the clicker, instead of teaching the behavior at liberty and only adding the halter, or other training aids, later, after the behavior is consistently being performed correctly. Bear in mind that even the halter can be insinuated pressure due to the reinforcement history associated with the halter and how it has been used in the past.
I am sure you can see how different these methods may seem to the horse. There are definitely some variables in how different people apply clicker training to their horses. This variable certainly makes a difference in the horse’s attitude toward the training. This was one of the possible differences that came to mind when I tried to evaluate the factors that may be responsible for generating a not so happy attitude while clicker training. To be continued…